Running Can Withstand Several Diseases

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As we all know, running has many benefits. In the first place, the weight will be reduced through running. And furthermore, bone and muscle degradation can be avoided through running. Third, disease does not want to invade your body through running. Plus, running will give you more confidence, and running will properly reduce your stress.

Say goodbye to a bloated figure through running.

The reason why many people start running is that weight loss can be reduced through running. To lose weight, and running is the best way indeed. Running wants to burn more calories per minute than any other exercise.

Running can prevent the degeneration of your bones and muscles.

With regard to bones and your body, there must be a coordinate relationship between each other. Our bones become weaker by sitting in front of a monitor for a long period of time. However, long and regular exercise can keep your bones healthy. This means that our internal body will age more slowly by taking this action. Regular high-intensity exercise, such as running, has been shown to increase growth hormone. Hormones are a kind of continuous medical injection that celebrities use to make themselves look younger.

Running can fight disease.

Running can reduce the risk of stroke and breast cancer. As for patients who are likely to have or are already in the early stages of osteoporosis, diabetes, and hypertension, doctors want to advise them to run frequently. Fourth, running can maintain and increase your overall body level.

Running is the best sport that people can take to exercise the body.  It can raise cholesterol, reduce the risk of blood clots, and exercise fifty percent of your lungs that are always in a regular and idle state. Running can also increase your lymphocytes, thereby strengthening your immune system.

Running will make you more confident.

Just like any other single workout, jogging can help you have more confidence. Running allows you to try again and again, which will make you stronger and more positive about yourself. This allows you to literally cross mountains and get past barriers. You will be given strength and a sense of freedom when you realize that you have a stronger body. Confidence is a valuable asset for runners who have experienced successful weight loss and have reached the ideal body in mind by running.

Relax and reduce stress through running.

ogging can be a distraction, and your problems will go away when you shower in a roadside view. Long distance racing is suitable for people who are in a group of headaches and worrying thoughts. A two hour long distance run will be the best idea to get rid of your nervousness and clear your thoughts over other ideas. If you feel really stressed, why not run at a fast pace, and then a good mood will come to you. Finally, it’s an easy thing to run, and you can also run at any time. There are not many sports that can be done just anywhere and almost no equipment is required. Today, we just need a good pair of running shoes, and then you can get started.

The Difference Between Roulette and Running

There are many differences between the game of Roulette and running. The first of these is that while Roulette can be played with a set of dice, it is essentially gambling, while running is not. In a way, Roulette is more of a pure form of betting. It is completely dependent on luck and is not dependent on the efforts of the person playing the game. A good example of this would be the fact that if you bet on the first number and get it on the red you will still have a winning streak, but if you were to get the same number on the green, you probably would not be able to continue.

In contrast, most of the time, Running is more of a careful strategy that requires plenty of study, experience and careful planning. The game of online roulette relies mostly on luck, while in running it is mostly based on knowledge. Another major difference between the two games is that there are only four possible outcomes, whereas in Roulette there are a total of eight possible outcomes. This means that the possibilities for a win are actually much greater than those in Roulette.

Although they may be very different, both games require strategy and practice. Both require a good eye towards timing and a good feel for how the wheel goes around. As such, there are a lot of elements that go into making a successful run, rather than simply luck. This means that anyone who plays both should expect some skill and luck.

How to find out if you have Facet Joint Pain

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Aspect joints are what can be found in the posterior area of ​​the human spine. They are spinal joints that have been connected on each side of the spine from top to bottom (that is, the aspect joints run up and down the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar sections).

The purpose of aspect joints is like the spinal discs, where it provides the body support and the ability to bend, rotate, and move. Aspect joints have the same characteristics as other joints in the body, making them much like the knee and hip joints in construction.

Facet Joint Syndrome

When there is aspect joint pain, it represents a specific type of pain in the spine that originates from the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine. Symptoms are most often described as aches, stiffness, and constant or throbbing pain when bending or twisting. This area may also hurt to the touch. Being active is when the pain worsens in severity because the activity causes the aspect joint to be used more than if you were more sedentary.

Likewise, with different joints in the body, osteoarthritis is the most widely recognized reason for this difficult joint condition. Different conditions, for example, rheumatoid joint pain, ankylosing spondylitis, injury or whiplash, and stress identified with degenerative loop infections, scoliosis, or previous back surgery can also add to the torment of the spinal joints. In this condition, aggravation and torment are in the most basic features of the more established population as a degenerative procedure, but can also occur in younger individuals, especially if there is a past filled with previous spinal injuries including cracks or whips.

Lumbar Facet Joint Arthritis

Cervical aspect joint pain can bring radiation-induced neck torture to the range of the shoulder or shoulder bones, as well as brain pain. Neck solidity and muscle delicacy are also normal. It is also normal to encounter sensations or sounds often described by patients as ‘crushing’, ‘popping’, ‘splitting’, ‘rock’, or ‘sand paper’ on the neck or back. The thoracic aspect of joint suffering can cause middle back torment, generally, at the level of the shoulder blades or below. Lumbar display joint torture can cause lower back suffering with radiation to the cheeks, buttocks, hips, or thighs. This manifestation of neck and back pain is usually more lamentable in the mornings and increases in a few seconds to minutes later on walks and walks. Side effects are also often intensified by being pulled out of sitting or standing and making standing up straight from a chair a pain, and again, usually increasing with development.

Most patients will have excessive spinal delicacy in the affected zone, which the dallas spine surgeon can accurately locate. The torture is often accompanied by lying down (expanding) or potentially bending (pivoting) the neck or back, and can be mitigated by bending forward (flexion). Suffering from cervical features can cause torment when turning your head while driving or difficulty at night unwinding your neck while resting. Lumbar aspect torment can also cause problems lying down the level on the back. On the off chance that the joint inflammation is causing a nerve to be squeezed or indications of spinal stenosis may include torment of an arm or leg, death, chills, or a lack of muscle.

Orthotics: How They Can Help Plantar Fasciitis Due to a Falling Arch

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The arch support insole is a device that is placed inside your footwear to restore normal foot function. Many common ailments such as heel pain, knee pain and lower back pain are triggered by biomechanical defects. Biomechanics is movement research and studies body movements during walking, running, and participating in sports.

Why Do We Need Orthotics?

An average of 70 percent of people worldwide are dealing with a disease called excessive pronation, something that can become the cause for painful conditions over time. Some patients overpronate more than others. The reason so many people have flat feet is because of the flat, hard surface we walk on every day. Also, age, weak ankle muscles and body weight play a role. For this reason, excessive pronation is much more prevalent in adults in their 50s and over, as well as in people who are overweight.

For many individuals, excessive pronation does not cause real problems, especially for younger people. However, improper foot function caused by excessive pronation can lead to a variety of problems including plantar fasciitis, heel pain, heel spurs, metatarsalgia – even knee pain and low back pain!

Orthotics correct over-pronation problems and can help reduce or get rid of many of the common aches and pains caused by flat feet and other foot ailments. Orthotic insoles are inexpensive, costing between $ 30 and $ 40 per pair. Buying a pair of orthotic inserts can be a valuable investment in your health, as they can also help avoid many biomechanical problems in the future.

What exactly is orthotics?

Orthotic insoles are products that are inserted into shoes with the aim of restoring the function of our natural feet. Many common ailments such as heel pain, knee pain and low back pain are caused by poor foot biomechanics. Biomechanics is the science of movement and observes the movements of our bodies when running, walking and doing sports. The most common type of abnormal foot biomechanics is excessive pronation. It involves falling bends and bends of the feet and ankles. On average, 70% of people experience excessive pronation to some degree. The orthic inssoles correct excessive pronation and realign the ankle and ankle bones to their neutral position, rebuilding the original leg function. At the same time, it will help alleviate problems not only in the legs, but also in other parts of your body, especially the lower body such as the knees, hips and lower back.

What is the Difference Between Orthotics and Regular Insoles?

There is a big difference between the average insole and the arch support insert. Standard inssoles are designed only for cushioning and shock absorption. They may feel comfortable starting out, but they don’t focus on any biomechanical issues ie they don’t alleviate excessive pronation. On the other hand, orthotic inserts are surgical devices, created to improve and optimize the function of our feet. Some inssoles also include arch supports, but often insufficient support, especially if the incest is made of the resulting material.

So how do orthotic inserts actually work?

To begin with, orthotic inserts do a lot more than provide support to the arch. The orthic insoles bring back the correct position of the feet and ankles and restore normal leg function. In addition, orthotic inserts provide a more even spread of our body weight, keeping pressure from soft spots (eg heels, balls of feet, corns between toes and bunions). In addition, they provide a certain level of shock absorption, but this is not their main objective. The main purpose of orthotic inserts is to improve foot function. In many situations this will reduce pain in the leg and help stop future problems and damage.

Know the Benefits of Physiotherapy Treatment at Home

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Physiotherapy is one of the best treatments for people who want to relax in physiotherapy related problems through biomechanics or kinesiology and exercise therapy.

Physiotherapy therapy is an allied health profession that utilizes biomechanics or kinesiology, exercise therapy, maintaining and enhancing physical mobility, manual therapy, and electrotherapy, to help patients recover, strength, and function. If you are suffering from physical related problems then you can get help from the nearest physiotherapy center, but if you live in Delhi then you should go for the best physiotherapy clinic in Mayur Vihar Phase 3 which provides the best physiotherapy treatment.

Benefits of Physiotherapy Treatment

Physiotherapists have the ability to improve the physical mobility of patients because physiotherapists know better how the human body works and they are trained in clinical skills to assess, diagnose and treat disabilities. Physiotherapists can help patients to recover from injuries and disabilities ranging from neck pain, back pain, ligament problems to knee pain.

Benefits of Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy has over the years proven its effectiveness in assisting patients in recovering their health and improving their physical strength, function, and mobility. To further enhance your experience with physiotherapy, you can go to the physiotherapy clinic in Mayur Vihar Phase 3, East Delhi. Some of the benefits of getting physiotherapy at home include

  • Provides personalized care
  • Allows convenience
  • Brings a faster healing process
  • Effective
  • No mobility problems
  • Family support and supervision
  • Better time management

Trabecular prosthesis

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The complex biomechanics and morphology of the proximal femur epiphyses are presented. This particular region of the human thighbone is characterized by high flexibility compared to other primates, as it evolved lighter and lasted longer due to the vertical position of humans and more balanced loading. The nature and fine morphology of the head of the femur and its structural behavior have been investigated.


Orthopedic prostheses in use today are mainly made of metal and ceramic materials with exceptional strength and stiffness properties but high physiological invasiveness. These systems, while guaranteeing the functional tenure of biomechanics, often severely disrupt the physiology of human bones.

This invasive is particularly evident for hip joint replacement using a rigid full metal prosthesis. Human bipedal gait and vertical posture have led to the unique and sizeable evolution and adaptation of the osseous systems of the femur, pelvis, hip and lumbar (Aversa et al., 2016 ao, 2017 ae; Petrescu et al., 2015, 2016 ae; Petrescu and Calautit, 2016 ab; Mirsayar et al., 2016-2017).

Trabecular Metal Primary Hip Prosthesis

The complex evolution of trabecular bone position and morphology in human proximal bone is mainly determined by a stress pattern in which bone is retained only in areas where it undergoes a sufficiently tense mechanical stimulus and is lost when it is not (Lovejoy 1988, 2002, 2005).

Therefore, the clinical efficiency and long-term reliability of hip joint prostheses require a deeper understanding of the biomechanical invasiveness of current restorative replacement. These products, which are made from traditional technologies such as melting and mechanical machining, do not hold flexible design solutions that allow for the fine integration of biomechanical bone in the biologically complex structure of the femur. Moreover, this traditional solution is inadequate for younger patients who have high life expectancy and then high prosthetic requirements in terms of duration and biomechanical osseointegration.

A new generation of prostheses with better biomechanical osseointegration with living bone is then required.

In particular, additive technologies using Titanium or Cobalt Chrome alloys, due to the eclecticism of their processes in producing high-strength complex trabecular structures, may represent a new generation of flexible trabecular bio-prosthetic components production in the future.

Studies on prosthetic biomimetics involving this innovative fabrication process (Annunziata et al., 2006; Apicella et al., 2010; Aversa et al., 2009, 2016) have opened up the definition of new design criteria for the production of more biomechanically compatible prostheses. Figure 1 depicts a biomimetic approach using silico, in vitro, and in vivo validation steps for biofidel bone modeling.

Mandibular and femur biofidel models have been presented in previous publications (Apicella et al., 2010; Gramanzini et al., 2016; Perillo et al., 2010; Sorrentino et al., 2007; 2009).

The authors, starting from this study, have investigated the potential of additive manufacturing technologies that are still not fully exploited. In addition, advances in our biomimetic design procedures, which have allowed us to conceptually develop new biomimetic dental implants (Aversa et al 2009) and new trabecular prostheses, could lead to new prosthetic systems that better mimic the biomechanical behavior of the thigh (Aversa et al 2016). .

The human thighbone has an internal light trabecular structure which, through evolutionary optimization of the mass and morphology of cortical and trabecular bone types (Walker et al 1985, Bruno et al 1999, Oh and Harris, 1978; Tamar and Hashin, 1980), has been able to develop mechanical properties. which can withstand high external pressures (Ashman et al., 1984; Dalstra et al., 1993).

Human bipedal gait and vertical posture have led to a unique and sizable adaptation of the osseous systems of the femur, pelvis, hip and lumbar. In particular, the hip joint acquires a much more extended position. The human thighbone, which is basically loaded in a vertical position, has evolved to be lighter and longer than other primates where it is loaded horizontally.

This morphological evolution is due to the fact that the neck of the thigh of the limb in the vertical stand is loaded as a cantilever beam, and can then be related to the smaller bending moments produced in humans.

The evolutionary pathway of the human hip has been extensively reviewed (Lovejoi 2005) to explain the unusual cortico-trabecular structure of the proximal femur, which presents a cortical bone that is definitely thickened only in certain locations (Figure 2 right).

In particular, as reported by Lovejoy et al (1988), the head of the thigh thickens the cortex only near its lower part while it indicates a practically complete absence of cortex in the top as reported in Figure 2 right).

Manual Therapy and Joint Dysfunction

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Tight muscles create asymmetry and weak muscles allow for asymmetry in the myofascial and skeletal systems. Deep intrinsic muscle and bony skeleton are inseparable: What affects one person always affects another. Until the therapist devises a basic understanding of how tissue engineering affects mobility / stability in a reinforced framework, randomized deep tissue work is contraindicated. Massagers and body workers who specialize in chronic pain and postural problems gain by studying spinal biomechanics and learning to focus therapeutic intentions on myofascial and associated (articular) structures of the spine.

Manual Physical Therapy

Poor joint function and accompanying protective muscle spasms are commonly seen in clients who present long-term neck, upper shoulder, and arm pain. People who frequently hold the phone with one shoulder often develop chronic unilateral hypertonicity in the levator scapulae and splenius cervicis muscles. Due to their general attachment in the top three or four transverse processes of the cervix, one-sided contraction of the sidebend of these muscles and rotates the neck and shrugs to help secure the phone. Problems increase as deep spinal “groove” muscles such as rotatores, multifidi, and intertransversarii react to unilateral continuous hypercontractions. When over-stimulated, this fibrotic strip is notorious for locking in a closed facet on the ipsilateral side and open on the contralateral side.

Sensitive joint mechanoreceptors respond to continuous torsional loading by flooding the spinal cord with dangerous afferent messages that can cause the brain to further shorten this spinal rotator. Repeated exposure to the compressive strength of the unilateral prolonged sidebending of the neck also causes the degradation of the joint cartilage, which, in turn, promotes the build-up of adhesive tissue at the servicothoracic junction, namely, Dowager’s Hump.

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

The brief conceptualization of the head being pulled forward is also pulled to the right sidebending and right rotation due to the combined hypercontraction of the levator and splenius cervicis muscles. When the client tries to raise his head from the flexed position to the extended position, the aspect on the right slides down on their lower neighbor as it should. But the right sidebent neck alters vertebral tracking causing the left side to “jam” when the head and neck try to bend backwards, namely T3, unable to move back to the proper closed position on T4. Since the T3 joint on the left cannot be closed accurately, it forces the T3 cross-section to rotate to the right.

To compensate, the T3 rib on the right is pushed into external rotation – Now the nagging pain begins. The long irritation allows these “dynamic duos” (vertebral / rib fixation) to feed on each other, creating reflexogenic inhibition of the surrounding paravertebral muscles, including the rhomboid and trapezius muscles. Retraining exercises to strengthen the weakened lower shoulder stabilizer muscles to help withstand the strong pull of the large chest are useless until both joint fixations are fixed. Pain between knives (double fixation) is one of the longest and most irritating joint-related problems our clients have ever experienced.

To help with this sad situation, the fascia of the splenius cervicis, the levator scapula and the anterior scalp on the right must first be lengthened.

The therapist may use a finger or thumb to shade the groove of the lamina bilaterally scanning in a lower direction until the bony knot on the right at T3 is neglected. Using light and sustained anterior / inferior pressure, the client is instructed to inhale a count of five, while carefully attempting to extend and rotate the left of his head against sustained isometric resistance of the therapist’s thumb.

When the bony knot pushes back against the resistance of the therapist, the release of the strong Golgi tendon organs is transferred via a transverse process to the adjoining spinal rotator muscles, creating increased capsule flexibility and subsequent joint decompression.

When the client exhales and relaxes, the post-isometric relaxation reaction further softens the muscles and joint capsule. Pressure from the therapist’s finger slowly erases T3’s rotation and increased tracking allows the face-to-face T3 on the left to slide smoothly down the T4.

If softening is immediately neglected in the surrounding spinal muscles following this technique, then the therapist is doing his best. Always look to see if the rib on the left has corrected itself by scanning prib oros with soft fingertips, superior to the lower, feel for the bumps around T3. If the slightly protruding rib bars are neglected, the ribs are still trapped in internal rotation. With your finger or thumb, simply release the intercostal muscles over the dysfunctional ribs medially in a lateral direction.

14 Effective Ways to Prevent Sports Injury

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Sports is one of the most effective physical activities that provide innumerable health benefits. According to Healthline, sports improve your mood, concentration, and sleep habits. It also helps in reducing stress and depression, boosting your self-confidence and maintaining a healthy weight.

There are so many choices of sports that you can choose from – basketball, football, baseball, volleyball, and badminton, among others. However, as human beings, we are not immune to certain injuries. In a study conducted by The Centre for International Public Health Policy of the University of Edinburgh, 24% of sports players obtain injuries in which 15% of it was experienced by playing football.

Based on the data of Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2% of cases seen in emergency departments are caused by sports injuries. Thus, it is important that we take care of our body in performing sports and even fitness-related activities.

Be in Proper Physical Condition

Before you engage in sports or training, always keep in mind that you should be in proper physical condition. Perform regular conditioning exercises that are designed specifically for your sport. Moreover, train slowly but surely. You do not learn any sports overnight. To condition your body, you need to undergo training.

Wear Protective Gear

You cannot tell if you will encounter accidents or emergencies in the middle of the game. You should be ready. Wear protective gears, equipment, and devices that will protect you from unexpected injuries. This includes mouth guards, helmets, gloves, protective pads and other equipment. Running shoes are also designed to improve your performance and decrease your risk to knee and foot injuries.

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Warm up Before Playing

Warming up is a must before engaging into sports. It prepares your body, mind, and heart for the training or the sports. Warming-up gradually raises your heart rate, warms your muscles and connective tissues, improves your mobility and promotes functionality of all your body’s movements. It also allows entry of oxygen to your muscles, tendons, ligaments and flexible joints, among others.

Have Enough Sleep

Sleep plays a vital part in your recovery which is vital in your overall training program and optimal performance. Sleep can make you stronger and will prevent you from fatigue, poor judgment, and certain injuries. Even famous athletes like Lebron James and Roger Federer gets 12 hours of sleep per night.

Do Not Over Work

It is extremely important that you always listen to your body. When you engage in sports, you have to begin slowly and steadily to avoid straining some of your muscles which may lead to injuries. Do not work beyond your limits.

Improve Technique

Based on the principles of biomechanics, the most effective way of improving your performance is by improving your techniques. Your physical built is just a small factor in your performance. The coordination of your body movements is important in performing well in different kinds of sports. For example, gymnasts are required to focus on improving their body techniques so they can perform well. Swimming, basketball and other sports require the application of biomechanics.

Keep Hydrated

Our body is composed of 60% of water. When we exercise or we do sports, we lose these water. Thus, we need to replace those water through proper hydration. According to sports dietitians, water is essential in maintaining blood volume, regulating body temperature and allowing muscle contractions. Apart from water, hydrating drinks that are rich in electrolytes are recommended for athletes.

Cool Down

If warming up is important, cooling down is also essential. After working out or training, you have to spend at least 10 minutes of performing gentle exercises that will return your heart rate to a normal pace. By cooling down, you are allowing your body to remove excess wastes and allow the flow of oxygen and nutrients into your muscles.

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Do Stretching

It is important that you maintain and develop flexibility in your body to prevent acquiring injuries. Poor flexibility is equivalent to short and tight muscles which cause muscle and tendon strains. Through stretching, you can improve or maintain your flexibility. After cooling down, make sure you spend time stretching.

Take Breaks

During a continuous training or a long play, remember to take a break so that your body and mind will have ample time to recover and gain energy. If you will not take a rest between sets or period, your mind will keep on pushing your body to work which will lead to injuries. It will also increase your risk to fatigue and decreased judgment. Thus, breaks are important for body recovery and mind refocusing.

Know the Rules of the Game

Basically, you have to be knowledgeable of the mechanics and rules of the sports. These rules are made to prevent athletes from acquiring injuries. For example, football restricts clipping, chop blocking and slapping a helmet to keep athletes safe. If you do not break the rules, then you do not endanger yourself to certain injuries.

Stop When Pain Occurs

Pain is the number one symptom of injury. If you experience a pain that is intolerable, stop playing or take a break. Pain is the earliest symptom of a possible injury. It will be followed by swelling, stiffness, instability, weakness, numbness, tingling and redness, among others. Pain can be felt in shoulders, elbows, wrists, fingers, spines, hips, knees, ankles and feet. If you experience pain from one of these parts, immediately see a sports therapist.

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Eat Healthy

Diet and proper nutrition are important for athletes. A good nutrition plan is the foundation of an effective fitness program. The demands of sports and exercise on the body mean that you should replace all the energy and nutrients consumed by eating healthy food. For athletes, it is important that they eat regular, small meals to fuel their training or sport. They should also take protein to promote muscle health.

See a Sports Therapist

Lastly, it is necessary that you see your sports therapist very often so that they can check your health. They will tell you if your body is keeping up with the demands of your sports or training or if there are early symptoms of injuries. They are the experts in teaching you how to improve your performance and to prevent you from injuries.

10 Greatest Scientific Discoveries and Inventions of 21st Century

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For the past centuries, there have been countless of developments and advancements in the world. Scientists and researchers have continued to discover new things and expand our understanding and knowledge of the natural phenomena happening around us.

In the 21st century, there are thousands of scientific breakthroughs. These have helped in improving our way of living while some are the key to greater innovation in the future.

In this article, we ranked the greatest scientific discoveries and inventions of the 21st century.

Detection of Gravitational Waves

Scientists considered this as the greatest discovery of the 21st century. Let us go back to the time when Albert Einstein first predicted in his theory of relativity that time travel will be possible. Now, it has been proven by the recent findings. The LIGO project based in the United States has detected gravitational waves that could allow scientists to develop a time machine and travel to the earliest and darkest parts of the universe. This was the first time that the witnessed the “ripples in the fabric of space-time.”

mars - 10 Greatest Scientific Discoveries and Inventions of 21st Century

Evidence of Water on Mars

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration confirmed last September 2015 that there is evidence proving the existence of liquid water in Mars. Using the imaging spectrometer of NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), scientists detected hydrated salts in different locations on Mars. During the warm season, the hydrated salts darken and flow down steep. However, they fade in cooler seasons. The detection of hydrated salts means that water plays a vital role in their formation.

Robotic Body Parts

Through the help of biomechanics and engineering, scientists have devised robotic body parts. The University of Twente has developed robotic arms that can aid those individuals affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This will allow patients to amplify residual function in the arm. They also applied Darpa’s Revolutionizing Prosthetics project of creating prosthetics to wounded US military personnel, in developing robotic limbs. Today, scientists are studying on the viability of making these robotic body parts or exoskeletons controlled by the mind to help disabled individuals, survivors of stroke and elderly people.

T. Rex Tissue

Paleontologists have discovered a partially fossilized and decomposing femur of a Tyrannosaurus rex which was believed to be 70 million years old already, or a date closer to the biblical date of creation. Mary Higby Schweitzer of North Carolina State University and Montana State University found out flexible and transparent vessels. This soft tissue discovered is preserved because of the iron between the leg bones. The T.Rex tissue is very essential in determining the physiology of dinosaurs and to study its cellular and molecular structures. They have found out that dinosaurs are closely related to big birds, like the ostrich.

hiv - 10 Greatest Scientific Discoveries and Inventions of 21st Century

Advancement in HIV Cure

According to, there are over 36.7 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, in which 1.8 million of it is children. HIV/AIDS remain to be one of the deadliest diseases in the world. On the other hand, HIV treatment has been available in Germany for more than two decades already. Antiretroviral therapy allows HIV/AIDS patients to live longer. However, no definite cure is still discovered. In 2007, Dr. GeroHütter was the first one to successfully cure an HIV/AIDS patient named Timothy Ray Brown by transplanting bone marrow from an HIV-immune patient.

Existence of Dark Matter

In 2006, a team of researchers has found an evidence that proves the existence of dark matter. They inferred the presence of dark matter by measuring the bullet clusters or the location of mass in the collision of galaxies. According to Maxim Markevitch of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, the dark matter can be proven by the bulk of visible matter in the clusters that have been disconnected to the rest of the mass. According to NASA, it is still a complete mystery. What they can prove for now is that 68% of the universe is composed of dark energy.

Sequencing Genome of Cancer Patient

In 2003, scientists completed the sequencing of the human genome or genetic blueprint that points out the mutations leading to cancer. It took three years for them to finish drafting the three billion letters that compose the human DNA. The Human Genome Project helped scientists in treating a deadly type of skin cancer and understanding the genes involved in leukemia, eczema, and diabetes. Now, cancer genome sequencing is integrated into medical care facilities. It characterizes and identifies DNA or RNA sequences of cancer cells.

Creation of Human Organs

The Stem Cell research has paved the way to greater access to organs, instead of waiting for donors or taking harsh medications. Scientists from Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School have discovered how to regenerate the function of human heart tissue through adult skin cells. Through stem cells, humans can grow another organ. This is associated with the regenerative nature of living organisms. Recently, various research all around the world enables growing fallopian tubes, heart, brain, lung, and kidney, among others through stem cells.

water - 10 Greatest Scientific Discoveries and Inventions of 21st Century

Water as Fuel

German Cleantech Company has developed a futuristic machine that converts water into fuel.  Through Power-to-Liquid Technology, they can convert water and carbon dioxide into liquid hydrocarbons which take the form of synthetic diesel, petrol, and kerosene. This technology was based on Fischer-Tropsch process and solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOECs) which converts electricity to steam. In 2017, Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) and Berkeley Lab’s Materials Project also devised a technology that turns sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into fuel which can be a viable source of power, replacing coal, oil and other fossil fuels.

Face Transplants

A face transplant is a medical procedure that replaces a person’s face using the tissues of a dead person. In 2005, Isabelle Dinoire of France was the first person to have partial face transplant while the first full face transplant happened in Spain in 2010. Face transplants have been popularly carried out in the United States, Spain, France, and Turkey. This is applicable for people with birth defects or disfigures caused by burns, disease, and trauma.

Writing Your First Scientific Research Paper

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Teaching students how to conduct a research is important. It introduces them how to expand their body of knowledge and seek for understanding of the natural occurrences in their environment. One of the most effective tools in engaging students to research is requiring them to produce a scientific research paper.

A scientific research paper involves the conduct of experimentation, observation, and other strategic processes to gather data and analyze them to obtain results. It helps students understand various issues that surround them. Further, it follows an organized and comprehensive structure that will guide the students on how to perform the study. Most scientific research papers adopt the standard outline and format used by researchers.


The most important part is your title. It gives your readers a clear and concise description of your research. It should be informative and specific and uses no jargon. According to St. Lawrence University, titles should be simple and direct, instead of making titles that are too witty and impressive.

Instead of writing “Measure a nerve response in a dog”, consider narrowing it down to “The Effects of Ethanol on the Compound Action Potential of a Dog Sciatic Nerve”.

Take note that the title page appears on the cover page of your published study. All nouns should be capitalized in the title.

w1 - Writing Your First Scientific Research Paper


This section includes the name of the researchers who contributed to the conduct of the study. In most research papers, authors are just listed in names. On the other hand, you may write the description of each author, including their degree of study, achievement, affiliation with science and other information. It always depends on the requirement of your instructor.


An abstract is a one paragraph consisting of 250 words that summarize the problem, investigation, methods used, summarized results and major conclusions. An abstract should be self-explanatory and shall extract the most important points from each section of the paper. According to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, readers should automatically assess your study by just reading your abstract. Abstracts are usually written after finishing everything in the research.


This section introduces the problem of the study which is the main focus of the research. This will give your readers understanding of what the study is all about. In most science papers, these are the following sections that should be included in the introduction chapter.

Background of the study

This part provides readers the background of your study. It elaborates the problem by discussing the underlying causes of the problem, its impact on the society or environment, and other essential elements involved. The background will let readers understand the need to stop the problem.

Statement of the Problem

This portion isolates the problem. It should be stated in clear and specific terms. The statement of the problem is usually in question form. These questions will be answered throughout the research.


A hypothesis a proposed explanation of the problem. It is an educated, wild guess that can answer the statement of the problems. In research, two hypotheses are compared – the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. Null hypothesis negates the relationship between variables in the study, whereas alternative hypothesis says otherwise, that there is some kind of relationship between variables.

Significance of the study

Apparently, this part lists down why it is important to conduct the study. This includes benefits, advantages, important results and justifications of the conduct of the study.

Scope and Limitations

The scope refers to the boundaries and limits within which the study needs to be kept. This may include reasons like historical, ideological, geographical or persons. This will help narrow the focus of the study.

Definition of Terms

This section explains the variables and key terms involved in the study. The use of the terms may be different from others. Thus, this section is used to clarify and specify the definition of each key term.

w2 - Writing Your First Scientific Research Paper


Also called as Materials and Methods, this chapter will describe the complete steps, methods, strategies, materials, and instruments used in the conduct of the study. The methods and materials of quantitative and qualitative research differ from each other. In this part, the important data will be gathered to draw results.


In this section, the researcher presents summarized for data. Include tables, graphs, figures, and numbers that represent the data. Write a narrative text that summarizes and describes the data presented in the tables and figures, among others. Do not interpret yet the data as they will be done in the discussion section.


The data will be analyzed and interpreted in the discussion section. Researchers will find the relationships or correlations among experimental variables. In discussing, theories, approaches and perspectives will be used to elaborate and clearly explain the results. The discussion will provide a detailed explanation and answer to the statement of the problem.


The conclusion includes the summary of the results and findings that answer the statement of the problem and the hypotheses. The conclusion is one of the sections that most readers go through first, along with the introduction. It gives them the totality of the study or research. This is also usually done in a numbered or bulleted list.


The acknowledgment is done after the conduct of study but usually, this section is situated before the abstract page. It provides an opportunity for the authors and researchers to thank their teachers, mentors, parents, respondents, friends and all people who take an active part in accomplishing the study.

References/Literature Cited

This section cites all the sources of information used by the researchers. It cites the works mentioned in the study. This includes books, journals, online articles, related studies and other references. It follows a bibliographic style. This is important to justify the substantiality of the study and to avoid plagiarism.


Lastly, an appendix is a compilation of supplementary materials involved in the conduct of the study. This includes instruments and materials used in gathering data, supporting documents and pieces of evidence in the acquisition of results. The appendix section is placed in the past part of the research.

That’s it! We hope you are ready to present your work to the science fair or congress.

The Biomechanics of Our Everyday Lives


Biomechanics is one of the most fascinating sciences that frequently goes under-appreciated by much of the general public.

At its core, biomechanics is the study of the movement and locomotion of biological systems.

Arms, legs, tails, and wings are all within the domain of Biomechanics, and the study of these vital tools of the movement of living creatures has had surprising effects on our lives.

Every movement we make is powered by carbon-based machinery which often takes advantage of the laws of physics in breathtaking and creative ways.

Experts of biomechanics have, through careful research and reverse engineering, discovered not only the secrets of our own bodies’ functions but found incredible applications which have resulted in some of the most futuristic and exciting inventions of the modern era.

Biomechanics is truly only just beginning to pick up speed; who knows what the future may hold?

Predicting the future is nearly impossible, but an idea of where things could be in a few years’ time can be gleaned by looking backward and comparing it to the modern day.

To understand the history of biomechanics is to understand the history of the function of the living beings of this Earth, whose bodies function with such incredible diversity as to be stunning and that have led us to discover new technologies like the internet, where we now trade, communicate and play online game (the like of which can be found at Casingdom).

1. The History of Biomechanics

While the formal school of biomechanics can be traced back to the first uses of the word in 1899, the earliest revelations of biological mechanisms are rooted in the scientific traditions of ancient Greece.

Aristotle was the first known thinker to categorise animals as a form of machine, and he wrote a book known as On the Movement of Animals.

Following in his footsteps many years later, the Roman doctor Galen created a similarly titled book known as On the Function of the Parts, which focused on the human body and its functions.

The Renaissance brought with it great advancements in the understanding of organic motion, thanks to philosopher-inventors like Leonardo Da Vinci, who studied the body for the purposes of both art and science.

Thinkers who challenged the status quo of the pre-Renaissance era saw the value in understanding the intricate processes of the body and pursued the unknown by carefully studying not only the human form but its internal functions as well.

It was during the late 1800s and early 1900s, though, that the greatest strides were made (at least until the modern day.) Biomechanics was formally established as a school of science, and the advancement of photographic technology allowed for the revelation of motion via photographs taken in rapid succession.

French scientist Étienne-Jules Marey realised that photography could be used to capture images of animal and human motility. His work established the foundation for the future analysis of film to reveal otherwise unobservable motion.

2. Biomechanics in the Modern Day

In addition to the understanding of basic organic mobility (swimming, walking, climbing,) research into biomechanics revealed such valuable information as the movement of blood through the veins, the function of the valves of the heart, the growth of various organs and limbs, and the foundations of aerodynamics.

The sheer amount of information made available to biomechanic researchers thanks to modern recording technology is unprecedented, and the applications are stunning.

Perhaps the most fascinating and cutting-edge application of biomechanics is the development of artificial or prosthetic limbs. Modern prosthetics go far above simple visual facsimiles of lost or stunted limbs, instead venturing far outside of the box to provide creative solutions for those with disabilities.

One such example is the prosthetic “tentacle” invented by Taiwanese inventor Kaylene Kau. This futuristic limb is able to curl and uncurl by the use of simple controls, allowing disabled individuals to easily regain the ability to hold and lift objects.

In addition, advancements in both neurological biomechanics and 3D printing are opening the doors for prosthetics that actually connect into the nervous system of the users, granting them the ability to regain complex movements of their limbs.

By 3D printing new prosthetics, overhead costs of both research and production can be kept low, allowing for more extensive distribution and study.

Modern biomechanics has also revealed a plethora of information about our digestive systems, resulting in fascinating inventions like the LINX, a carefully-crafted, fine titanium ring that may allow for the retirement of invasive stomach surgeries for acid reflux sufferers.

The ring was developed following research into the delicate muscles around the end of the oesophagus, which can become weak if damaged by repeated exposure to stomach acid. The LINX reinforces and strengthens these muscles without adding detrimental effects to digestion that are common with more invasive surgical solutions.

Biomechanics is proving to be one of the most promising fields of research of the Information Age, and that fact is only becoming clearer as other advancements in the fields of imaging, 3D printing, and robotics reinforce or catalyse the study of biomechanics.

With the leaps and bounds made in the understanding of the function of the human body in the last century, it doesn’t seem out of the question that scientists could develop nearly identical human limbs to replace lost limbs.

The regrowth of teeth, bones, and vital organs by utilising already existing processes in the human body are being researched currently; the success of such research could change the future forever.

Biomechanics, an ancient science that has only just taken concrete form within our minds, promises to bring us some of the most-needed developments of our time.

The future of the human race relies on us coming to understand ourselves, and we can only do that through the careful study of the mechanics of our existence.