How to find out if you have Facet Joint Pain

move 3605073 960 720 840x420 - How to find out if you have Facet Joint Pain

Aspect joints are what can be found in the posterior area of ​​the human spine. They are spinal joints that have been connected on each side of the spine from top to bottom (that is, the aspect joints run up and down the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar sections).

The purpose of aspect joints is like the spinal discs, where it provides the body support and the ability to bend, rotate, and move. Aspect joints have the same characteristics as other joints in the body, making them much like the knee and hip joints in construction.

Facet Joint Syndrome

When there is aspect joint pain, it represents a specific type of pain in the spine that originates from the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine. Symptoms are most often described as aches, stiffness, and constant or throbbing pain when bending or twisting. This area may also hurt to the touch. Being active is when the pain worsens in severity because the activity causes the aspect joint to be used more than if you were more sedentary.

Likewise, with different joints in the body, osteoarthritis is the most widely recognized reason for this difficult joint condition. Different conditions, for example, rheumatoid joint pain, ankylosing spondylitis, injury or whiplash, and stress identified with degenerative loop infections, scoliosis, or previous back surgery can also add to the torment of the spinal joints. In this condition, aggravation and torment are in the most basic features of the more established population as a degenerative procedure, but can also occur in younger individuals, especially if there is a past filled with previous spinal injuries including cracks or whips.

Lumbar Facet Joint Arthritis

Cervical aspect joint pain can bring radiation-induced neck torture to the range of the shoulder or shoulder bones, as well as brain pain. Neck solidity and muscle delicacy are also normal. It is also normal to encounter sensations or sounds often described by patients as ‘crushing’, ‘popping’, ‘splitting’, ‘rock’, or ‘sand paper’ on the neck or back. The thoracic aspect of joint suffering can cause middle back torment, generally, at the level of the shoulder blades or below. Lumbar display joint torture can cause lower back suffering with radiation to the cheeks, buttocks, hips, or thighs. This manifestation of neck and back pain is usually more lamentable in the mornings and increases in a few seconds to minutes later on walks and walks. Side effects are also often intensified by being pulled out of sitting or standing and making standing up straight from a chair a pain, and again, usually increasing with development.

Most patients will have excessive spinal delicacy in the affected zone, which the dallas spine surgeon can accurately locate. The torture is often accompanied by lying down (expanding) or potentially bending (pivoting) the neck or back, and can be mitigated by bending forward (flexion). Suffering from cervical features can cause torment when turning your head while driving or difficulty at night unwinding your neck while resting. Lumbar aspect torment can also cause problems lying down the level on the back. On the off chance that the joint inflammation is causing a nerve to be squeezed or indications of spinal stenosis may include torment of an arm or leg, death, chills, or a lack of muscle.

Orthotics: How They Can Help Plantar Fasciitis Due to a Falling Arch

therapy center 5112724  340 - Orthotics: How They Can Help Plantar Fasciitis Due to a Falling Arch

The arch support insole is a device that is placed inside your footwear to restore normal foot function. Many common ailments such as heel pain, knee pain and lower back pain are triggered by biomechanical defects. Biomechanics is movement research and studies body movements during walking, running, and participating in sports.

Why Do We Need Orthotics?

An average of 70 percent of people worldwide are dealing with a disease called excessive pronation, something that can become the cause for painful conditions over time. Some patients overpronate more than others. The reason so many people have flat feet is because of the flat, hard surface we walk on every day. Also, age, weak ankle muscles and body weight play a role. For this reason, excessive pronation is much more prevalent in adults in their 50s and over, as well as in people who are overweight.

For many individuals, excessive pronation does not cause real problems, especially for younger people. However, improper foot function caused by excessive pronation can lead to a variety of problems including plantar fasciitis, heel pain, heel spurs, metatarsalgia – even knee pain and low back pain!

Orthotics correct over-pronation problems and can help reduce or get rid of many of the common aches and pains caused by flat feet and other foot ailments. Orthotic insoles are inexpensive, costing between $ 30 and $ 40 per pair. Buying a pair of orthotic inserts can be a valuable investment in your health, as they can also help avoid many biomechanical problems in the future.

What exactly is orthotics?

Orthotic insoles are products that are inserted into shoes with the aim of restoring the function of our natural feet. Many common ailments such as heel pain, knee pain and low back pain are caused by poor foot biomechanics. Biomechanics is the science of movement and observes the movements of our bodies when running, walking and doing sports. The most common type of abnormal foot biomechanics is excessive pronation. It involves falling bends and bends of the feet and ankles. On average, 70% of people experience excessive pronation to some degree. The orthic inssoles correct excessive pronation and realign the ankle and ankle bones to their neutral position, rebuilding the original leg function. At the same time, it will help alleviate problems not only in the legs, but also in other parts of your body, especially the lower body such as the knees, hips and lower back.

What is the Difference Between Orthotics and Regular Insoles?

There is a big difference between the average insole and the arch support insert. Standard inssoles are designed only for cushioning and shock absorption. They may feel comfortable starting out, but they don’t focus on any biomechanical issues ie they don’t alleviate excessive pronation. On the other hand, orthotic inserts are surgical devices, created to improve and optimize the function of our feet. Some inssoles also include arch supports, but often insufficient support, especially if the incest is made of the resulting material.

So how do orthotic inserts actually work?

To begin with, orthotic inserts do a lot more than provide support to the arch. The orthic insoles bring back the correct position of the feet and ankles and restore normal leg function. In addition, orthotic inserts provide a more even spread of our body weight, keeping pressure from soft spots (eg heels, balls of feet, corns between toes and bunions). In addition, they provide a certain level of shock absorption, but this is not their main objective. The main purpose of orthotic inserts is to improve foot function. In many situations this will reduce pain in the leg and help stop future problems and damage.

Know the Benefits of Physiotherapy Treatment at Home

physiotherapy 2133286 960 720 840x420 - Know the Benefits of Physiotherapy Treatment at Home


Physiotherapy is one of the best treatments for people who want to relax in physiotherapy related problems through biomechanics or kinesiology and exercise therapy.

Physiotherapy therapy is an allied health profession that utilizes biomechanics or kinesiology, exercise therapy, maintaining and enhancing physical mobility, manual therapy, and electrotherapy, to help patients recover, strength, and function. If you are suffering from physical related problems then you can get help from the nearest physiotherapy center, but if you live in Delhi then you should go for the best physiotherapy clinic in Mayur Vihar Phase 3 which provides the best physiotherapy treatment.

Benefits of Physiotherapy Treatment

Physiotherapists have the ability to improve the physical mobility of patients because physiotherapists know better how the human body works and they are trained in clinical skills to assess, diagnose and treat disabilities. Physiotherapists can help patients to recover from injuries and disabilities ranging from neck pain, back pain, ligament problems to knee pain.

Benefits of Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy has over the years proven its effectiveness in assisting patients in recovering their health and improving their physical strength, function, and mobility. To further enhance your experience with physiotherapy, you can go to the physiotherapy clinic in Mayur Vihar Phase 3, East Delhi. Some of the benefits of getting physiotherapy at home include

  • Provides personalized care
  • Allows convenience
  • Brings a faster healing process
  • Effective
  • No mobility problems
  • Family support and supervision
  • Better time management

Trabecular prosthesis

74894 7643263 - Trabecular prosthesis


The complex biomechanics and morphology of the proximal femur epiphyses are presented. This particular region of the human thighbone is characterized by high flexibility compared to other primates, as it evolved lighter and lasted longer due to the vertical position of humans and more balanced loading. The nature and fine morphology of the head of the femur and its structural behavior have been investigated.


Orthopedic prostheses in use today are mainly made of metal and ceramic materials with exceptional strength and stiffness properties but high physiological invasiveness. These systems, while guaranteeing the functional tenure of biomechanics, often severely disrupt the physiology of human bones.

This invasive is particularly evident for hip joint replacement using a rigid full metal prosthesis. Human bipedal gait and vertical posture have led to the unique and sizeable evolution and adaptation of the osseous systems of the femur, pelvis, hip and lumbar (Aversa et al., 2016 ao, 2017 ae; Petrescu et al., 2015, 2016 ae; Petrescu and Calautit, 2016 ab; Mirsayar et al., 2016-2017).

Trabecular Metal Primary Hip Prosthesis

The complex evolution of trabecular bone position and morphology in human proximal bone is mainly determined by a stress pattern in which bone is retained only in areas where it undergoes a sufficiently tense mechanical stimulus and is lost when it is not (Lovejoy 1988, 2002, 2005).

Therefore, the clinical efficiency and long-term reliability of hip joint prostheses require a deeper understanding of the biomechanical invasiveness of current restorative replacement. These products, which are made from traditional technologies such as melting and mechanical machining, do not hold flexible design solutions that allow for the fine integration of biomechanical bone in the biologically complex structure of the femur. Moreover, this traditional solution is inadequate for younger patients who have high life expectancy and then high prosthetic requirements in terms of duration and biomechanical osseointegration.

A new generation of prostheses with better biomechanical osseointegration with living bone is then required.

In particular, additive technologies using Titanium or Cobalt Chrome alloys, due to the eclecticism of their processes in producing high-strength complex trabecular structures, may represent a new generation of flexible trabecular bio-prosthetic components production in the future.

Studies on prosthetic biomimetics involving this innovative fabrication process (Annunziata et al., 2006; Apicella et al., 2010; Aversa et al., 2009, 2016) have opened up the definition of new design criteria for the production of more biomechanically compatible prostheses. Figure 1 depicts a biomimetic approach using silico, in vitro, and in vivo validation steps for biofidel bone modeling.

Mandibular and femur biofidel models have been presented in previous publications (Apicella et al., 2010; Gramanzini et al., 2016; Perillo et al., 2010; Sorrentino et al., 2007; 2009).

The authors, starting from this study, have investigated the potential of additive manufacturing technologies that are still not fully exploited. In addition, advances in our biomimetic design procedures, which have allowed us to conceptually develop new biomimetic dental implants (Aversa et al 2009) and new trabecular prostheses, could lead to new prosthetic systems that better mimic the biomechanical behavior of the thigh (Aversa et al 2016). .

The human thighbone has an internal light trabecular structure which, through evolutionary optimization of the mass and morphology of cortical and trabecular bone types (Walker et al 1985, Bruno et al 1999, Oh and Harris, 1978; Tamar and Hashin, 1980), has been able to develop mechanical properties. which can withstand high external pressures (Ashman et al., 1984; Dalstra et al., 1993).

Human bipedal gait and vertical posture have led to a unique and sizable adaptation of the osseous systems of the femur, pelvis, hip and lumbar. In particular, the hip joint acquires a much more extended position. The human thighbone, which is basically loaded in a vertical position, has evolved to be lighter and longer than other primates where it is loaded horizontally.

This morphological evolution is due to the fact that the neck of the thigh of the limb in the vertical stand is loaded as a cantilever beam, and can then be related to the smaller bending moments produced in humans.

The evolutionary pathway of the human hip has been extensively reviewed (Lovejoi 2005) to explain the unusual cortico-trabecular structure of the proximal femur, which presents a cortical bone that is definitely thickened only in certain locations (Figure 2 right).

In particular, as reported by Lovejoy et al (1988), the head of the thigh thickens the cortex only near its lower part while it indicates a practically complete absence of cortex in the top as reported in Figure 2 right).

10 Greatest Scientific Discoveries and Inventions of 21st Century

Blog9 840x420 - 10 Greatest Scientific Discoveries and Inventions of 21st Century

For the past centuries, there have been countless of developments and advancements in the world. Scientists and researchers have continued to discover new things and expand our understanding and knowledge of the natural phenomena happening around us.

In the 21st century, there are thousands of scientific breakthroughs. These have helped in improving our way of living while some are the key to greater innovation in the future.

In this article, we ranked the greatest scientific discoveries and inventions of the 21st century.

Detection of Gravitational Waves

Scientists considered this as the greatest discovery of the 21st century. Let us go back to the time when Albert Einstein first predicted in his theory of relativity that time travel will be possible. Now, it has been proven by the recent findings. The LIGO project based in the United States has detected gravitational waves that could allow scientists to develop a time machine and travel to the earliest and darkest parts of the universe. This was the first time that the witnessed the “ripples in the fabric of space-time.”

mars - 10 Greatest Scientific Discoveries and Inventions of 21st Century

Evidence of Water on Mars

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration confirmed last September 2015 that there is evidence proving the existence of liquid water in Mars. Using the imaging spectrometer of NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), scientists detected hydrated salts in different locations on Mars. During the warm season, the hydrated salts darken and flow down steep. However, they fade in cooler seasons. The detection of hydrated salts means that water plays a vital role in their formation.

Robotic Body Parts

Through the help of biomechanics and engineering, scientists have devised robotic body parts. The University of Twente has developed robotic arms that can aid those individuals affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This will allow patients to amplify residual function in the arm. They also applied Darpa’s Revolutionizing Prosthetics project of creating prosthetics to wounded US military personnel, in developing robotic limbs. Today, scientists are studying on the viability of making these robotic body parts or exoskeletons controlled by the mind to help disabled individuals, survivors of stroke and elderly people.

T. Rex Tissue

Paleontologists have discovered a partially fossilized and decomposing femur of a Tyrannosaurus rex which was believed to be 70 million years old already, or a date closer to the biblical date of creation. Mary Higby Schweitzer of North Carolina State University and Montana State University found out flexible and transparent vessels. This soft tissue discovered is preserved because of the iron between the leg bones. The T.Rex tissue is very essential in determining the physiology of dinosaurs and to study its cellular and molecular structures. They have found out that dinosaurs are closely related to big birds, like the ostrich.

hiv - 10 Greatest Scientific Discoveries and Inventions of 21st Century

Advancement in HIV Cure

According to, there are over 36.7 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, in which 1.8 million of it is children. HIV/AIDS remain to be one of the deadliest diseases in the world. On the other hand, HIV treatment has been available in Germany for more than two decades already. Antiretroviral therapy allows HIV/AIDS patients to live longer. However, no definite cure is still discovered. In 2007, Dr. GeroHütter was the first one to successfully cure an HIV/AIDS patient named Timothy Ray Brown by transplanting bone marrow from an HIV-immune patient.

Existence of Dark Matter

In 2006, a team of researchers has found an evidence that proves the existence of dark matter. They inferred the presence of dark matter by measuring the bullet clusters or the location of mass in the collision of galaxies. According to Maxim Markevitch of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, the dark matter can be proven by the bulk of visible matter in the clusters that have been disconnected to the rest of the mass. According to NASA, it is still a complete mystery. What they can prove for now is that 68% of the universe is composed of dark energy.

Sequencing Genome of Cancer Patient

In 2003, scientists completed the sequencing of the human genome or genetic blueprint that points out the mutations leading to cancer. It took three years for them to finish drafting the three billion letters that compose the human DNA. The Human Genome Project helped scientists in treating a deadly type of skin cancer and understanding the genes involved in leukemia, eczema, and diabetes. Now, cancer genome sequencing is integrated into medical care facilities. It characterizes and identifies DNA or RNA sequences of cancer cells.

Creation of Human Organs

The Stem Cell research has paved the way to greater access to organs, instead of waiting for donors or taking harsh medications. Scientists from Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School have discovered how to regenerate the function of human heart tissue through adult skin cells. Through stem cells, humans can grow another organ. This is associated with the regenerative nature of living organisms. Recently, various research all around the world enables growing fallopian tubes, heart, brain, lung, and kidney, among others through stem cells.

water - 10 Greatest Scientific Discoveries and Inventions of 21st Century

Water as Fuel

German Cleantech Company has developed a futuristic machine that converts water into fuel.  Through Power-to-Liquid Technology, they can convert water and carbon dioxide into liquid hydrocarbons which take the form of synthetic diesel, petrol, and kerosene. This technology was based on Fischer-Tropsch process and solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOECs) which converts electricity to steam. In 2017, Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) and Berkeley Lab’s Materials Project also devised a technology that turns sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into fuel which can be a viable source of power, replacing coal, oil and other fossil fuels.

Face Transplants

A face transplant is a medical procedure that replaces a person’s face using the tissues of a dead person. In 2005, Isabelle Dinoire of France was the first person to have partial face transplant while the first full face transplant happened in Spain in 2010. Face transplants have been popularly carried out in the United States, Spain, France, and Turkey. This is applicable for people with birth defects or disfigures caused by burns, disease, and trauma.

Writing Your First Scientific Research Paper

Blog8 840x420 - Writing Your First Scientific Research Paper

Teaching students how to conduct a research is important. It introduces them how to expand their body of knowledge and seek for understanding of the natural occurrences in their environment. One of the most effective tools in engaging students to research is requiring them to produce a scientific research paper.

A scientific research paper involves the conduct of experimentation, observation, and other strategic processes to gather data and analyze them to obtain results. It helps students understand various issues that surround them. Further, it follows an organized and comprehensive structure that will guide the students on how to perform the study. Most scientific research papers adopt the standard outline and format used by researchers.


The most important part is your title. It gives your readers a clear and concise description of your research. It should be informative and specific and uses no jargon. According to St. Lawrence University, titles should be simple and direct, instead of making titles that are too witty and impressive.

Instead of writing “Measure a nerve response in a dog”, consider narrowing it down to “The Effects of Ethanol on the Compound Action Potential of a Dog Sciatic Nerve”.

Take note that the title page appears on the cover page of your published study. All nouns should be capitalized in the title.

w1 - Writing Your First Scientific Research Paper


This section includes the name of the researchers who contributed to the conduct of the study. In most research papers, authors are just listed in names. On the other hand, you may write the description of each author, including their degree of study, achievement, affiliation with science and other information. It always depends on the requirement of your instructor.


An abstract is a one paragraph consisting of 250 words that summarize the problem, investigation, methods used, summarized results and major conclusions. An abstract should be self-explanatory and shall extract the most important points from each section of the paper. According to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, readers should automatically assess your study by just reading your abstract. Abstracts are usually written after finishing everything in the research.


This section introduces the problem of the study which is the main focus of the research. This will give your readers understanding of what the study is all about. In most science papers, these are the following sections that should be included in the introduction chapter.

Background of the study

This part provides readers the background of your study. It elaborates the problem by discussing the underlying causes of the problem, its impact on the society or environment, and other essential elements involved. The background will let readers understand the need to stop the problem.

Statement of the Problem

This portion isolates the problem. It should be stated in clear and specific terms. The statement of the problem is usually in question form. These questions will be answered throughout the research.


A hypothesis a proposed explanation of the problem. It is an educated, wild guess that can answer the statement of the problems. In research, two hypotheses are compared – the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. Null hypothesis negates the relationship between variables in the study, whereas alternative hypothesis says otherwise, that there is some kind of relationship between variables.

Significance of the study

Apparently, this part lists down why it is important to conduct the study. This includes benefits, advantages, important results and justifications of the conduct of the study.

Scope and Limitations

The scope refers to the boundaries and limits within which the study needs to be kept. This may include reasons like historical, ideological, geographical or persons. This will help narrow the focus of the study.

Definition of Terms

This section explains the variables and key terms involved in the study. The use of the terms may be different from others. Thus, this section is used to clarify and specify the definition of each key term.

w2 - Writing Your First Scientific Research Paper


Also called as Materials and Methods, this chapter will describe the complete steps, methods, strategies, materials, and instruments used in the conduct of the study. The methods and materials of quantitative and qualitative research differ from each other. In this part, the important data will be gathered to draw results.


In this section, the researcher presents summarized for data. Include tables, graphs, figures, and numbers that represent the data. Write a narrative text that summarizes and describes the data presented in the tables and figures, among others. Do not interpret yet the data as they will be done in the discussion section.


The data will be analyzed and interpreted in the discussion section. Researchers will find the relationships or correlations among experimental variables. In discussing, theories, approaches and perspectives will be used to elaborate and clearly explain the results. The discussion will provide a detailed explanation and answer to the statement of the problem.


The conclusion includes the summary of the results and findings that answer the statement of the problem and the hypotheses. The conclusion is one of the sections that most readers go through first, along with the introduction. It gives them the totality of the study or research. This is also usually done in a numbered or bulleted list.


The acknowledgment is done after the conduct of study but usually, this section is situated before the abstract page. It provides an opportunity for the authors and researchers to thank their teachers, mentors, parents, respondents, friends and all people who take an active part in accomplishing the study.

References/Literature Cited

This section cites all the sources of information used by the researchers. It cites the works mentioned in the study. This includes books, journals, online articles, related studies and other references. It follows a bibliographic style. This is important to justify the substantiality of the study and to avoid plagiarism.


Lastly, an appendix is a compilation of supplementary materials involved in the conduct of the study. This includes instruments and materials used in gathering data, supporting documents and pieces of evidence in the acquisition of results. The appendix section is placed in the past part of the research.

That’s it! We hope you are ready to present your work to the science fair or congress.

18 Biggest Science Fairs and Festivals in the World

Blog7 840x420 - 18 Biggest Science Fairs and Festivals in the World

Everywhere in the world, science is being celebrated through fairs, festivals, congress, competitions, and conferences. Scientists, researchers, teachers, students, and individuals gather to celebrate the gift of knowledge and discovery.

Let us get a roundup of the 18 biggest science fairs and festivals in the world.

World Science Festival

The World Science Festival is definitely one of the largest and the most celebrated annual science festival. It is produced by a World Science Foundation which is headquartered in New York City. Its primary mission is to promote science as an essential tool in preparing people for the future.

North Carolina Science Festival

This festival is a multi-week event that focuses on bringing interactive science learning opportunities to different counties in North Carolina. This is initiated by Morehead Planetarium and Science Center which aims to make the understanding of science accessible to all.

Edinburgh International Science Festival

Since 1989, this science festival is celebrated every April in Edinburgh, Scotland. It aims to inspire people of all ages and backgrounds to love science. This is considered one of the largest science festivals in Europe that feature talks, tours, and exhibitions. It is also the world’s first public celebration of science and technology.

e2 - 18 Biggest Science Fairs and Festivals in the World

International Science Festival Gothenburg

This festival is one of Europe’s leading annual popular science events and is the largest science festival in Sweden. It started in April 1997. This science festival is attended by more than 100,000 visitors each year. They give researchers and experts the opportunity to meet students and the public.

Cheltenham Science Festival

Cheltenham Science Festival is one of UK’s leading science festivals. It is part of Cheltenham Festivals which also celebrates music, dance, and literature. This festival was participated by more than 2,500 musicians, writers, scientists, performers, and thinkers, among others. Cheltenham Festivals was inaugurated in 1945, but it was only in 2002 when Science was integrated into the event.

British Science Festival

This science event is also one of Europe’s longest standing science festivals that is being celebrated in different places in the United Kingdom. It gathers hundreds of scientists, technologists, engineers and social scientists. They provide free talks, workshops and drop-in events about a wide range of science topics.

Intel International Science and Engineering Fair

This annual fair sponsored by Intel is celebrated by more than 7 million high school students all around the world. They celebrate science, technology, math, and engineering. A total of USD 4 million in awards and scholarships is awarded to almost 2,000 winners of local, regional, state, and national competitions.

Regeneron Science Talent Search

This science event was known as Westinghouse Science Talent Search for the past 57 years and Intel Science Talent Search from 1998 through 2015. It is a competition participated by high school seniors in the United States, showcasing their science research. It is considered US’ oldest and most prestigious” science competition.

Broadcom MASTERS

Broadcom MASTERS which stands for Math, Applied Science, Technology and Engineering Rising Stars is a US-based science competition participated by more than 6,000 middle school students. It is a program of Society for Science & the Public and is sponsored by Broadcom Foundation.

Siemens Competition in Math, Science & Technology

This competition funded by Siemens Foundation started in 1999. It is one of United States’ premier science research competitions that is dedicated for high school students. They aim to promote excellence by engaging students into science research projects and future careers in these disciplines.

Wide Science Festival

Wide Science Festival is an annual science fair in Canada which started in 1962. It is participated by more than 25,000 competitors from over 100 regional science fairs throughout Canada. On the actual festival, over 500 projects and students are judged. This fair provides an opportunity for students to celebrate their passion for science and technology.

Austrian Young Physicists’ Tournament

AYPT is a team-oriented physics competition participated by high school students. Participants will face 17 problems covering various physical disciplines. They will present their solutions to the problems, which will be criticized and debated by other students during the tournament. The team with the best solution is determined by an expert jury.

e1 - 18 Biggest Science Fairs and Festivals in the World

International Movement for Leisure Activities in Science and Technology

Also known as MILSET, International Movement for Leisure Activities in Science and Technologyis a non-profit organization which aims to organize science fairs, camps, congresses and other activities that develop a scientific culture for young people.

European Union Contest for Young Scientists

This science event is initiated by the European Commission and is part of the European Union Framework Programmes on Research. It promotes understanding of science among young and aspiring scientists. This contest is held in different countries. The first EU contest took place in Belgium in 1989.


Jugendforscht, translated as Youth Research is one of the largest European contests in science and technology dedicated for the young minds. Every year, they organize over 110 competitions and other activities that interest children and adults in mathematics, computer science, natural sciences, and technology.


SciFest is an annual scientific festival that is conducted at the local, regional, national and international level. It is participated by almost 4,000 students and 500 teachers showcasing over 3,000 projects. This science event also partnered with International Environment and Sustainability Project Olympiad (INESPO).

Eskom Expo for Young Scientists

Eskom Expo for Young Scientists is South Africa’s only existing science fair for students to showcase their scientific investigations and engineering projects. It is also participated by teachers, professional organizations and 35 affiliated regions in South Africa. Eskom Expo aims to increase awareness of the amazing wonders of science and engineering.

The Junior Science and Humanities Symposia

JSHS is a science symposium administered by the Academy of Applied Science. It is designed to encourage students to engage in learning science, technology, engineering and mathematics. It helps them advance their skills to prepare them for their undergraduate and graduate pursuits and future careers.

Science is indeed widely celebrated in the world. All of these events aim to showcase the body of knowledge.


15 Basic Steps in Conducting a Successful Science Fair in School

Blog6 840x420 - 15 Basic Steps in Conducting a Successful Science Fair in School

A science fair is one of the unique ways of celebrating science. It also provides the opportunity for students, teachers and other people to improve their understanding in science and share their research projects and investigations.  Indeed, a science fair is a good form of knowledge-building and social development.

In organizing a science fair, there are basic steps that you should do. Usually, a science fair should be prepared two to three months ahead of the actual fair for it to be successful.

sa - 15 Basic Steps in Conducting a Successful Science Fair in School

Before the Science Fair

To start organizing the science fair, you have to gather a group of people who will be responsible for the conceptualization and the implementation of the science fair. It could be a group of teachers, students, and researchers, among others.

Set Goals for the Science Fair

The science fair should be celebrated for a reason. It is important that you set goals for the program. These are the objectives that you and your participants should achieve at the end of the fair. You have to make the experience positive for the participants. They should feel a sense of accomplishment. It is also your goal to give ample opportunity for students to showcase what they researched or developed.

Set the Date and Venue

Find a location that can accommodate the number of participants that you expect and the materials that are needed in the fair, including chairs and display boards. You can always make use of your library, classroom, gym or cafeteria for the science fair to too many costs. In determining the date, avoid scheduling it on a day that is full of activities.

fair1 - 15 Basic Steps in Conducting a Successful Science Fair in School

Create Interactive Activities

Basically, one of the activities for the science fair is the showcasing of the students’ investigatory and research projects. But apart from that, you can devise other fun and interactive activities such as science-inspired games. You can also invite prominent resource speakers to have a talk about biology or anything related to science.

Plan the Schedule

Draft the schedule for the event. This will be needed for your invitation. Calculate the amount of time for each activity. Let us say the time dedicated to setting up the room will be at least six hours. So, the preparation should start the day before the fair. Judging should take 3 hours, visitation of booths shall be at least one hour, and so forth.

Recruit Staff and Volunteers

You cannot do it alone. Of course, you have to ask the help of volunteers. The number of volunteers depends on the size of the event. The volunteers will help in the room setup, registration, ushering guests, monitoring the event and others.

Decide on Awards

Consider if you want to acknowledge the participation of the students. You can create a customized certificates which will be distributed on the day of the fair. Determine the awards (first-place, second-place, third-place, minor awards, etc.) and create the criteria for judging.

Invite Visitors

Promote your event through various strategies. You can post on your bulletin boards or announce it publicly. You can also use the power of social media to spread the science fair. Of course, to be formal, you can produce invitation cards. These will be given to special guests and judges. Include in your invitation the schedule, date and location, program, awards and other benefits.

fair2 - 15 Basic Steps in Conducting a Successful Science Fair in School

During the Science Fair

After all the preparation you have made, it is time for the science fair!

Set Up the Room

Ask the volunteers and the school custodians to help you in setting up the room. Use your layout map to help direct those involved in the fair. Make sure that the stage and podium are presentable. Setup the tables, chairs, area for judges, display boards, research projects and everything that should be showcased in the fair.

Register Participants

Record the attendance of the students and the participants. If they have submitted their projects for the fair, then give them a project code especially if judging has been blinded. Track any changes that may affect the fair, like students backing out of the fair. Direct the students and guests to the appropriate specific locations.

Orient Judges

If the judges are complete, make sure that you orient them very well about the mechanics of the program and the criteria for judging. Ensure that the hold no bias in judging. Also, you can utilize blind judging to avoid favoritism.

Monitor the Fair

The fair should start by now. The hosts shall have opened the science event and welcomed the guests. Now, you have to monitor the flow of the fair. Of course, it is normal that there are unexpected circumstances along the way. You have to manage it smoothly so as not to affect the fair. Always check if the students, judges, and guests are enjoying or doing well. Stick to your schedule to avoid inconsistencies.

Tabulate Scores

After the ample time given for judging, tabulate the scores carefully. Total the score on each sheet, file each score by category and collate score sheets. This is one of the most crucial stages. You have to be careful in tabulating the results as these will determine the winners. Create an official list of winners.

Distribute Certificates and Awards

It is recommended that you conduct a small awarding ceremony on the last part of the science fair. It is a unique way of acknowledging the hard work and the brilliance of the students for their entries. Distribute certificate of participation for all students who attended. Also, acknowledge the presence of special guests and judges. Lastly, announce the major awards.

After the Science Fair

After the successful implementation of the science fair, the work still continues. There are certain things that you should do after the science fair.

Evaluate Your Program

Review if the goals and objectives of the program are being met. Assess how well you and your staff achieved in the fair. You can also send evaluation forms to the students who participated so that they can rate the science fair and provide feedback and suggestions for the improvement of the science fair.

Publicize the Fair

Lastly, you have to be proud of the science fair. Publicize the event in your school paper or in your official social media page. Include photos of the highlights of the science fair, winners, awards, etc.

Analyzing Biomechanics Through Other Fields of Sciences

Blog5 840x420 - Analyzing Biomechanics Through Other Fields of Sciences

Biomechanics provides understanding the relationship between the human anatomy and the mechanical properties. It analyzes body movement to improve performance and decrease the risk of an individual to certain injuries.

Since the ancient period, the study of biomechanics has started to roll. Many scientists who specialize in various fields – anatomy, physiology, mathematics, biology, physics, and engineering have contributed to the understanding and knowledge of biomechanics. In the present time, more scientists have conducted their own research on how biomechanics can improve human existence. There have been various scholarly societies that unite to celebrate biomechanics and further the body of knowledge.

There are a lot of things about biomechanics that is yet to be discovered. If you are interested contributing to the knowledge of science, you should be aware of the methods of analyzing biomechanics. Further, you should utilize certain approaches and other disciplines of science to better understand what biomechanics is.

v2 - Analyzing Biomechanics Through Other Fields of Sciences

Two Methods of Research Analysis

In conducting a scientific research, there are two basic methods used in gathering data – qualitative and quantitative research. The two have different goal or aim. They also vary in usage, instruments in gathering data, approaches and the types of data, among others.


Qualitative research is a research method that is exploratory in nature. Its primary goal is to provide a complete and thorough explanation of the research topic. It is broader and more focused on the bigger picture of the topic. In conducting a qualitative research, the researcher can conduct in-depth interviews, engage in focus groups, analyze documentaries, use archival research or do participatory observation. This method is recommended for the earlier phases of the research.

According to Knudson & Morrison (2002), the qualitative analysis in biomechanics involves “systematic observation and introspective judgment” of the quality of human body movement in order for the researchers to identify and determine the appropriate approach and intervention in improving the performance. Qualitative analysis remains the most used approach by kinesiology professionals in understanding human movement problems.  However, it requires that the researcher is skilled with critical thinking and wide knowledge in science.


Quantitative research aims to generate measurable data like statistical models, percentages, figures, and numbers. It also uses systematic empirical investigation and mathematical expressions. The problem studied in quantitative analysis is more narrowed and focused. In gathering data, quantitative research employs various data-gathering strategies, including survey questionnaires. This type of research is suitable for those who want to get numerical data and clearer picture of the results.

In biomechanics, qualitative research involves the measurement of biomechanical variables. It also requires a computer to perform huge numerical calculations. It needs thousands of samples of data to be gathered, scaled and analyzed. In contrast to qualitative research, quantitative generates a more accurate, consistent and precise results that are not biased and opinionated. Most quantitative biomechanical analysis utilizes devices that measure biomechanical variables. This includes timing lights, timing mats, radar and quantitative videography systems, among others.

Five Disciplinary Categories in Understanding Biomechanics

In understanding biomechanics, other disciplines and fields of sciences are used as lens or tool to strengthen research. In the journal of Anne Atwater of the University of Arizona entitled Biomechanics: An Interdisciplinary Science, she mentioned that there are five disciplinary categories that exemplify biomechanics research. These fields of sciences are specified by the American Society of Biomechanics.

v1 - Analyzing Biomechanics Through Other Fields of Sciences

Biological Sciences

Biology is relevant in studying biomechanics, as it is where biomechanics is derived. Biomechanics who specialize in biological science work in the department of biology, zoology, anthropology and veterinary sciences, among others. Their focus of the study is to know the mechanics of animal locomotion. They understand why and how land animals walk, hop, gallop and jump; snakes crawl in the ground; fishes swim; monkeys glide and hang; etc.

Apart from animal movements, they learn the animals’ morphology, physiology, and anatomy. For example, biomechanists study the essence of the backbones of the fish in making them move in the waters. Also, fishes who have different forms of backbones have different styles and techniques of swimming. Through biomechanics, they will be able to understand the relationship of body composition or structure and movement.

Ergonomic and Human Factors

Ergonomics is defined as the applied science concerned with the design and arrangement of things that people use for efficient and safe interaction. On the other hand, the field of human factors includes how humans respond to a certain stimulus or the effects of human interaction. Biomechanists who work closely with ergonomics specialize in a variety of disciplines including industrial engineering, public health, and occupational safety.

Biomechanists study how workers, especially those engaged in heavy loads can prevent injuries in performing their risky tasks. Moreover, biomechanics will teach them the proper techniques in carrying load or pushing and pulling loads that will improve their performance and promote their safety.

Engineering and Applied Physics

Engineers are among the most active in developing a better understanding of biomechanics. Basically, engineers deal with the invention, innovation, designing, building, and development of structures. In biomechanics, instead of structures and tools, they analyze the living systems and materials. They are employed in the study of biological tissues including bones, tendons, cartilage, and ligaments. With the integration of physics, they will analyze the relationship between structure and motion in the human body. Further, biomechanists engineer devices that can be helpful in human movement.

In the 20th century, biomechanists who specialize in engineering devised prosthetic limbs to help those soldiers and victims of World War I who lost their limbs, disabling them to walk.

Health Sciences

Biomechanics is also understood through knowing the mechanisms of health sciences. Biomechanists who specialize in health sciences are found in the departments of restorative medicine, rehabilitation sciences, orthodontics, orthopedic surgery and other disciplines of science that involve human health. Biomechanics has been helpful in understanding health problems such as scoliosis, cervical spine injuries, and others.

Exercise and Sport Sciences

Lastly, biomechanics is involved in exercise and sports sciences. Biomechanists who specialize in this discipline are involved in sports medicine, exercise science, athletics, physical education, and kinesiology. Earlier, we discussed how biomechanics improve the performance of athletes and prevent them from obtaining injuries.

How Can I Learn More About Biomechanics?

Blog4 840x420 - How Can I Learn More About Biomechanics?

Biomechanics has been a popular choice of study for many researchers all around the world. Many scientists are interested in expanding the understanding of biomechanics. However, apart from scientists, other people are exploring biomechanics because of its potential in improving human life.

The study of biomechanics is important for people to know about how to improve their performance and prevent from acquiring injuries. Biomechanics has been applied in sports for many years now as it is helpful in teaching athletes techniques that will better their performance in sports.

If you are one of the people who wish to know more about biomechanics, there are a wide range of avenues and outlets where you can explore the world of biomechanics.

x1 - How Can I Learn More About Biomechanics?

Biomechanics Textbooks

One of the greatest sources of knowledge about biomechanics is textbooks. There are lots of biomechanics books available in the library and even in bookstores. Students who are learning about biomechanics can review their coverage of research through textbooks. One of the advantages of learning through textbooks is its organization of topics and sub-topics. Every basic thing you need to learn about biomechanics is introduced in textbooks.

If you want more convenience in accessing these books, then you can purchase them online. If you want to have a concise explanation of biomechanics, you can read the book Basic Biomechanics (2011) by Susan Hall. Basic Biomechanics features balanced coverage of biomechanics, anatomical structure, and applications, among others.

If you are a sports enthusiast or an athlete, read the book Biomechanics of Sport and Exercise (2013) by Peter McGinnis which provides a unique approach to the presentation of sports biomechanics. Another book is the Biomechanical Basis of Human Movement (2014) by Hamill, Knutzen, and Derrick which explores the full continuum of human movement potential. Lastly, we also recommend the book of Duane Knudson entitled Fundamental of Biomechanics (2007) which elaborates the different applications of biomechanics in human life.

x2 - How Can I Learn More About Biomechanics?

Online References

Another way to learn about biomechanics is the use of computer and internet. There are thousands of computerized bibliographies and online books that talk about biomechanics. For those students who are taking Kinesiology course, you may refer to SportDiscus, MEDLINE, and Embase, among the greatest electronic sources.


SportDiscus is a comprehensive collection of online resources under EBSCO databases. It has more than 660 full-text journals published from 1930 to the present. It also has almost 1,000 abstracts for journals. Moreover, it features sports-related videos and articles. Apart from sports, physical fitness, training, coaching and education, they also include subjects like kinesiology, biomechanics, health and nutrition, occupational safety, orthopedics, injury prevention rehabilitation and physical therapy, among others.


MEDLINE is the premier bibliographic database of U.S. National Library of Medicine. It contains more than 24 million references including journals, news, overviews, tutorials, training resources, and abstracts for biomedical literature. They have Literature Selection Technical Review Committee that examines the references and resources from over 5,600 worldwide journals and 69,000 citations written in more than 60 languages, for both new and old journals. Their topics include behavioral sciences, chemical sciences, life sciences and most especially, bioengineering.


Embase is one of the most trusted bibliographic databases that provides unparalleled coverage of the biomedical literature. According to their site, they have more than 32 million records from over 8,000 currently published journals. They are also proud to include more than six million records and almost 3,000 journals that are not covered by MEDLINE. Embase keeps records of conference abstracts from conferences since 2009. Currently, they have indexed more than 7,000 conferences.

In surfing the web, you have to be very careful in looking for your resources. Most journals now are optimized for search engines, so you just have to choose the right keywords. In keying in your queries, you can link keywords through Boolean (and, or) operators.

Some online resources also have a .pdf version which makes it easier for you to access. Just make sure that the author and the source of that reference are reliable and trusted.

Scholarly Societies

Lastly, there are dozens of scholarly organizations in your place and all around the world that are dedicated to the study of biomechanics. Scholarly societies sponsor meetings, publications, and research for the development and better understanding of their chosen field of study. In biomechanics, there are prominent organizations that conduct international congress and assemblies to celebrate and showcase their studies.

International Society of Biomechanics (ISB)

We have discussed earlier in one of our contents the International Society of Biomechanics. It is a renowned international science organization that promotes a better understanding of biomechanics. It was founded on August 30, 1973. Its first International Congress on Biomechanics was held in Zurich, Switzerland. The United Kingdom was given the opportunity to host the 25th Congress at The Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre (SECC). The most recent congress was held in Brisbane, Australia.

International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK)

ISEK is a multidisciplinary organization that specializes in health-related fields and basic science, including human movement, neuromuscular system, engineering, physical education and physical therapy. The organization was founded on August 13, 1965, during the International Congress of Anatomy in Germany. Every two year, these scientists also gather at a Congress. Their first ever congress took place in Montreal, Canada in 1968. Their 21st ISEK Congress was held in Chicago, Illinois from July 5 to 8, 2016. They are heading to their 22nd Congress at Dublin to be held on June 30 to July 2, 2018.

SHAPE America

SHAPE America or Society of Health and Physical Educators (formerly known as American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance) is an organization that specializes in health, physical education, and dance. They promote education and leadership for more creative, healthy and active lifestyles.

American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)

American College of Sports Medicine is an organization with more than 50,000 members and certified professionals who specialize in sports medicine and exercise science. They provide access to publications, research opportunities, career development resources and online learning courses, among others.