Writing Your First Scientific Research Paper

Blog8 840x420 - Writing Your First Scientific Research Paper

Teaching students how to conduct a research is important. It introduces them how to expand their body of knowledge and seek for understanding of the natural occurrences in their environment. One of the most effective tools in engaging students to research is requiring them to produce a scientific research paper.

A scientific research paper involves the conduct of experimentation, observation, and other strategic processes to gather data and analyze them to obtain results. It helps students understand various issues that surround them. Further, it follows an organized and comprehensive structure that will guide the students on how to perform the study. Most scientific research papers adopt the standard outline and format used by researchers.

Title

The most important part is your title. It gives your readers a clear and concise description of your research. It should be informative and specific and uses no jargon. According to St. Lawrence University, titles should be simple and direct, instead of making titles that are too witty and impressive.

Instead of writing “Measure a nerve response in a dog”, consider narrowing it down to “The Effects of Ethanol on the Compound Action Potential of a Dog Sciatic Nerve”.

Take note that the title page appears on the cover page of your published study. All nouns should be capitalized in the title.

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Authors

This section includes the name of the researchers who contributed to the conduct of the study. In most research papers, authors are just listed in names. On the other hand, you may write the description of each author, including their degree of study, achievement, affiliation with science and other information. It always depends on the requirement of your instructor.

Abstract

An abstract is a one paragraph consisting of 250 words that summarize the problem, investigation, methods used, summarized results and major conclusions. An abstract should be self-explanatory and shall extract the most important points from each section of the paper. According to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, readers should automatically assess your study by just reading your abstract. Abstracts are usually written after finishing everything in the research.

Introduction

This section introduces the problem of the study which is the main focus of the research. This will give your readers understanding of what the study is all about. In most science papers, these are the following sections that should be included in the introduction chapter.

Background of the study

This part provides readers the background of your study. It elaborates the problem by discussing the underlying causes of the problem, its impact on the society or environment, and other essential elements involved. The background will let readers understand the need to stop the problem.

Statement of the Problem

This portion isolates the problem. It should be stated in clear and specific terms. The statement of the problem is usually in question form. These questions will be answered throughout the research.

Hypothesis

A hypothesis a proposed explanation of the problem. It is an educated, wild guess that can answer the statement of the problems. In research, two hypotheses are compared – the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. Null hypothesis negates the relationship between variables in the study, whereas alternative hypothesis says otherwise, that there is some kind of relationship between variables.

Significance of the study

Apparently, this part lists down why it is important to conduct the study. This includes benefits, advantages, important results and justifications of the conduct of the study.

Scope and Limitations

The scope refers to the boundaries and limits within which the study needs to be kept. This may include reasons like historical, ideological, geographical or persons. This will help narrow the focus of the study.

Definition of Terms

This section explains the variables and key terms involved in the study. The use of the terms may be different from others. Thus, this section is used to clarify and specify the definition of each key term.

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Methodology

Also called as Materials and Methods, this chapter will describe the complete steps, methods, strategies, materials, and instruments used in the conduct of the study. The methods and materials of quantitative and qualitative research differ from each other. In this part, the important data will be gathered to draw results.

Results

In this section, the researcher presents summarized for data. Include tables, graphs, figures, and numbers that represent the data. Write a narrative text that summarizes and describes the data presented in the tables and figures, among others. Do not interpret yet the data as they will be done in the discussion section.

Discussion

The data will be analyzed and interpreted in the discussion section. Researchers will find the relationships or correlations among experimental variables. In discussing, theories, approaches and perspectives will be used to elaborate and clearly explain the results. The discussion will provide a detailed explanation and answer to the statement of the problem.

Conclusion

The conclusion includes the summary of the results and findings that answer the statement of the problem and the hypotheses. The conclusion is one of the sections that most readers go through first, along with the introduction. It gives them the totality of the study or research. This is also usually done in a numbered or bulleted list.

Acknowledgement

The acknowledgment is done after the conduct of study but usually, this section is situated before the abstract page. It provides an opportunity for the authors and researchers to thank their teachers, mentors, parents, respondents, friends and all people who take an active part in accomplishing the study.

References/Literature Cited

This section cites all the sources of information used by the researchers. It cites the works mentioned in the study. This includes books, journals, online articles, related studies and other references. It follows a bibliographic style. This is important to justify the substantiality of the study and to avoid plagiarism.

Appendices

Lastly, an appendix is a compilation of supplementary materials involved in the conduct of the study. This includes instruments and materials used in gathering data, supporting documents and pieces of evidence in the acquisition of results. The appendix section is placed in the past part of the research.

That’s it! We hope you are ready to present your work to the science fair or congress.

18 Biggest Science Fairs and Festivals in the World

Blog7 840x420 - 18 Biggest Science Fairs and Festivals in the World

Everywhere in the world, science is being celebrated through fairs, festivals, congress, competitions, and conferences. Scientists, researchers, teachers, students, and individuals gather to celebrate the gift of knowledge and discovery.

Let us get a roundup of the 18 biggest science fairs and festivals in the world.

World Science Festival

The World Science Festival is definitely one of the largest and the most celebrated annual science festival. It is produced by a World Science Foundation which is headquartered in New York City. Its primary mission is to promote science as an essential tool in preparing people for the future.

North Carolina Science Festival

This festival is a multi-week event that focuses on bringing interactive science learning opportunities to different counties in North Carolina. This is initiated by Morehead Planetarium and Science Center which aims to make the understanding of science accessible to all.

Edinburgh International Science Festival

Since 1989, this science festival is celebrated every April in Edinburgh, Scotland. It aims to inspire people of all ages and backgrounds to love science. This is considered one of the largest science festivals in Europe that feature talks, tours, and exhibitions. It is also the world’s first public celebration of science and technology.

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International Science Festival Gothenburg

This festival is one of Europe’s leading annual popular science events and is the largest science festival in Sweden. It started in April 1997. This science festival is attended by more than 100,000 visitors each year. They give researchers and experts the opportunity to meet students and the public.

Cheltenham Science Festival

Cheltenham Science Festival is one of UK’s leading science festivals. It is part of Cheltenham Festivals which also celebrates music, dance, and literature. This festival was participated by more than 2,500 musicians, writers, scientists, performers, and thinkers, among others. Cheltenham Festivals was inaugurated in 1945, but it was only in 2002 when Science was integrated into the event.

British Science Festival

This science event is also one of Europe’s longest standing science festivals that is being celebrated in different places in the United Kingdom. It gathers hundreds of scientists, technologists, engineers and social scientists. They provide free talks, workshops and drop-in events about a wide range of science topics.

Intel International Science and Engineering Fair

This annual fair sponsored by Intel is celebrated by more than 7 million high school students all around the world. They celebrate science, technology, math, and engineering. A total of USD 4 million in awards and scholarships is awarded to almost 2,000 winners of local, regional, state, and national competitions.

Regeneron Science Talent Search

This science event was known as Westinghouse Science Talent Search for the past 57 years and Intel Science Talent Search from 1998 through 2015. It is a competition participated by high school seniors in the United States, showcasing their science research. It is considered US’ oldest and most prestigious” science competition.

Broadcom MASTERS

Broadcom MASTERS which stands for Math, Applied Science, Technology and Engineering Rising Stars is a US-based science competition participated by more than 6,000 middle school students. It is a program of Society for Science & the Public and is sponsored by Broadcom Foundation.

Siemens Competition in Math, Science & Technology

This competition funded by Siemens Foundation started in 1999. It is one of United States’ premier science research competitions that is dedicated for high school students. They aim to promote excellence by engaging students into science research projects and future careers in these disciplines.

Wide Science Festival

Wide Science Festival is an annual science fair in Canada which started in 1962. It is participated by more than 25,000 competitors from over 100 regional science fairs throughout Canada. On the actual festival, over 500 projects and students are judged. This fair provides an opportunity for students to celebrate their passion for science and technology.

Austrian Young Physicists’ Tournament

AYPT is a team-oriented physics competition participated by high school students. Participants will face 17 problems covering various physical disciplines. They will present their solutions to the problems, which will be criticized and debated by other students during the tournament. The team with the best solution is determined by an expert jury.

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International Movement for Leisure Activities in Science and Technology

Also known as MILSET, International Movement for Leisure Activities in Science and Technologyis a non-profit organization which aims to organize science fairs, camps, congresses and other activities that develop a scientific culture for young people.

European Union Contest for Young Scientists

This science event is initiated by the European Commission and is part of the European Union Framework Programmes on Research. It promotes understanding of science among young and aspiring scientists. This contest is held in different countries. The first EU contest took place in Belgium in 1989.

Jugendforscht

Jugendforscht, translated as Youth Research is one of the largest European contests in science and technology dedicated for the young minds. Every year, they organize over 110 competitions and other activities that interest children and adults in mathematics, computer science, natural sciences, and technology.

SciFest

SciFest is an annual scientific festival that is conducted at the local, regional, national and international level. It is participated by almost 4,000 students and 500 teachers showcasing over 3,000 projects. This science event also partnered with International Environment and Sustainability Project Olympiad (INESPO).

Eskom Expo for Young Scientists

Eskom Expo for Young Scientists is South Africa’s only existing science fair for students to showcase their scientific investigations and engineering projects. It is also participated by teachers, professional organizations and 35 affiliated regions in South Africa. Eskom Expo aims to increase awareness of the amazing wonders of science and engineering.

The Junior Science and Humanities Symposia

JSHS is a science symposium administered by the Academy of Applied Science. It is designed to encourage students to engage in learning science, technology, engineering and mathematics. It helps them advance their skills to prepare them for their undergraduate and graduate pursuits and future careers.

Science is indeed widely celebrated in the world. All of these events aim to showcase the body of knowledge.

 

15 Basic Steps in Conducting a Successful Science Fair in School

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A science fair is one of the unique ways of celebrating science. It also provides the opportunity for students, teachers and other people to improve their understanding in science and share their research projects and investigations.  Indeed, a science fair is a good form of knowledge-building and social development.

In organizing a science fair, there are basic steps that you should do. Usually, a science fair should be prepared two to three months ahead of the actual fair for it to be successful.

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Before the Science Fair

To start organizing the science fair, you have to gather a group of people who will be responsible for the conceptualization and the implementation of the science fair. It could be a group of teachers, students, and researchers, among others.

Set Goals for the Science Fair

The science fair should be celebrated for a reason. It is important that you set goals for the program. These are the objectives that you and your participants should achieve at the end of the fair. You have to make the experience positive for the participants. They should feel a sense of accomplishment. It is also your goal to give ample opportunity for students to showcase what they researched or developed.

Set the Date and Venue

Find a location that can accommodate the number of participants that you expect and the materials that are needed in the fair, including chairs and display boards. You can always make use of your library, classroom, gym or cafeteria for the science fair to too many costs. In determining the date, avoid scheduling it on a day that is full of activities.

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Create Interactive Activities

Basically, one of the activities for the science fair is the showcasing of the students’ investigatory and research projects. But apart from that, you can devise other fun and interactive activities such as science-inspired games. You can also invite prominent resource speakers to have a talk about biology or anything related to science.

Plan the Schedule

Draft the schedule for the event. This will be needed for your invitation. Calculate the amount of time for each activity. Let us say the time dedicated to setting up the room will be at least six hours. So, the preparation should start the day before the fair. Judging should take 3 hours, visitation of booths shall be at least one hour, and so forth.

Recruit Staff and Volunteers

You cannot do it alone. Of course, you have to ask the help of volunteers. The number of volunteers depends on the size of the event. The volunteers will help in the room setup, registration, ushering guests, monitoring the event and others.

Decide on Awards

Consider if you want to acknowledge the participation of the students. You can create a customized certificates which will be distributed on the day of the fair. Determine the awards (first-place, second-place, third-place, minor awards, etc.) and create the criteria for judging.

Invite Visitors

Promote your event through various strategies. You can post on your bulletin boards or announce it publicly. You can also use the power of social media to spread the science fair. Of course, to be formal, you can produce invitation cards. These will be given to special guests and judges. Include in your invitation the schedule, date and location, program, awards and other benefits.

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During the Science Fair

After all the preparation you have made, it is time for the science fair!

Set Up the Room

Ask the volunteers and the school custodians to help you in setting up the room. Use your layout map to help direct those involved in the fair. Make sure that the stage and podium are presentable. Setup the tables, chairs, area for judges, display boards, research projects and everything that should be showcased in the fair.

Register Participants

Record the attendance of the students and the participants. If they have submitted their projects for the fair, then give them a project code especially if judging has been blinded. Track any changes that may affect the fair, like students backing out of the fair. Direct the students and guests to the appropriate specific locations.

Orient Judges

If the judges are complete, make sure that you orient them very well about the mechanics of the program and the criteria for judging. Ensure that the hold no bias in judging. Also, you can utilize blind judging to avoid favoritism.

Monitor the Fair

The fair should start by now. The hosts shall have opened the science event and welcomed the guests. Now, you have to monitor the flow of the fair. Of course, it is normal that there are unexpected circumstances along the way. You have to manage it smoothly so as not to affect the fair. Always check if the students, judges, and guests are enjoying or doing well. Stick to your schedule to avoid inconsistencies.

Tabulate Scores

After the ample time given for judging, tabulate the scores carefully. Total the score on each sheet, file each score by category and collate score sheets. This is one of the most crucial stages. You have to be careful in tabulating the results as these will determine the winners. Create an official list of winners.

Distribute Certificates and Awards

It is recommended that you conduct a small awarding ceremony on the last part of the science fair. It is a unique way of acknowledging the hard work and the brilliance of the students for their entries. Distribute certificate of participation for all students who attended. Also, acknowledge the presence of special guests and judges. Lastly, announce the major awards.

After the Science Fair

After the successful implementation of the science fair, the work still continues. There are certain things that you should do after the science fair.

Evaluate Your Program

Review if the goals and objectives of the program are being met. Assess how well you and your staff achieved in the fair. You can also send evaluation forms to the students who participated so that they can rate the science fair and provide feedback and suggestions for the improvement of the science fair.

Publicize the Fair

Lastly, you have to be proud of the science fair. Publicize the event in your school paper or in your official social media page. Include photos of the highlights of the science fair, winners, awards, etc.

International Society of Biomechanics (ISB): An Introduction

Blog1 840x420 - International Society of Biomechanics (ISB): An Introduction

The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) has been a renowned international science organization that promotes the understanding of biomechanics all around the world. The ISB has toured across continents and nations to unite the scientists and researchers to expand the knowledge of biomechanics.

When did ISB start?

In September 29, 1971, scientists gathered at the 3rd International Seminar on Biomechanics held in Rome. The assembly was organized by a group under International Council of Sport and Physical Education of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). At the meeting, the majority of the scientists and researchers voted to create the International Society of Biomechanics during the next meeting.

On August 26, 1973, the 4th International Seminar on Biomechanics took place at Penn State University. On the 29th, the creation of ISB was approved. August 30, 1973 was the official founding anniversary of the ISB. 250 of those present during the voting automatically became charter members of ISB.

Since its founding, the society has grown to more than 1,000 members.

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Who governs the society?

An executive council governs the society. The council is elected every two years by mail ballot. The executive council is composed of the president, secretary-general, treasurers, newsletter editors, other officers and council members. They represent countries across the world and various scientific sub-fields and areas within biomechanics. The council meets every year to provide leadership for the continued growth and development of the ISB.

The first president of the ISB was JurgWartenweiler of Switzerland who served from 1973 to 1977. Today, the current executive council is presided by Joe Hamill of the United States. He is a Professor and Associate Dean of Research for the School of Public Health and Health Sciences of the Department of Kinesiology of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Overall, there are 21 presidents in the history of ISB.

What do the ISB work?

The International Society of Biomechanics promotes the study and understanding of all areas of biomechanics. They have established a connection with scientists across the globe who will take an active part in disseminating knowledge and conducting activities of national organizations related to the field of biomechanics.

The ISB believes that biomechanics plays a vital role in expanding the knowledge of all biological systems, from the level of humans down to the molecular size scales. In understanding the science and application of biomechanics, the society’s members also include scientists from different fields of studies. This includes anatomy, physiology, orthopedics, rehabilitation medicine, sports science, ergonomics, electrophysiological kinesiology, and engineering (biomedical, mechanical and mechatronics), among others.

They also support technical and working groups that specialize in 3-D motion analysis, computer simulation, shoulder biomechanics, hand and wrist biomechanics, footwear biomechanics and motor control group, among others.  They help in enhancing knowledge of specialized facets within biomechanics.

The ISB provides for affiliate memberships of international organizations that specialize in biomechanics. This includes:

  • American Society of Biomechanics
  • Australia/New Zealand Society of Biomechanics
  • Brazilian Society of Biomechanics
  • British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences
  • Bulgarian Society of Biomechanics
  • Canadian Society of Biomechanics
  • Chinese Society of Sports Biomechanics
  • Czech Society of Biomechanics
  • Danish Society of Biomechanics
  • German Society of Biomechanics
  • Hellenic Society of Biomechanics (Greece)
  • International Society of Biomechanics in Sports
  • Japanese Society of Biomechanics
  • Korean Society for Orthopaedic Research, Biomechanics, and Basic Science
  • Polish Society of Biomechanics
  • Portuguese Society of Biomechanics
  • Russian Society of Biomechanics
  • Societe de Biomecanique (France)
  • Taiwanese Society of Biomechanics

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What is the International Congress on Biomechanics?

The International Congress on Biomechanics is one of the major activities of the society. It is a biennial congress that provides a unique opportunity for participants across the world to gain understanding about biomechanics, contribute to its knowledge, and discuss key factors. Of course, it promotes camaraderie between scientists and researchers.

The first International Congress on Biomechanics was held in Zurich, Switzerland in 1967, before the official founding of the International Society of Biomechanics. It was followed by Netherlands and Italy in 1969 and 1971, respectively. When the ISB was created in 1973, the 4th Congress was held at State College in the United States.

The most recent congress was held in Brisbane, Australia on July 23 to 27, 2017. It was the 26th International Congress on Biomechanics. The Congress assembled incredible speakers, including Professor Jaap van Dieën of the Netherlands, Associate Professor Silvia Blemker of the United States, Professor Deborah Falla of Australia and Professor Chwee Teck Lim of Singapore, among others.

ISB 2015 in Glasgow

The 25th Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics was held at The Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre (SECC) here in Glasgow, United Kingdom. It was the first time that Glasgow and the United Kingdom hosted the said congress. The 25th Congress also took place along with the anniversary of the bio-engineering unit within the BME department at Strathclyde. During the congress, topics discussed include motor control, measurement technology, sports, hip and knee biomechanics and tissue mechanics, among others. Of course, the keynote speakers came from all around the world.

Apart from the International Congress on Biomechanics, the ISB is also active in the distribution of newsletters pertaining to biomechanics. They also sponsor scientific meetings related to biomechanics. The society encourages members to be one with the planning and the organization of scientific meetings. It also sponsors lecture tours and training in economically developing countries, including Brazil, India, Tanzania, Kenya, and Venezuela, among others. Currently, they are engaged in various scientific research in these nations.

Moreover, the society sponsors grants and scholarships to scientists and researchers through their education programs at congresses and travel grants scheme. The society is affiliated with the Journals of biomechanics, applied biomechanics, clinical biomechanics, electromyography, and kinesiology.

Lastly, the society recognizes and awards scientists and researchers who have an outstanding contribution to the fields of Biomechanics. The society honors the honorary members and ISB fellows. They also provide various awards – Muybridge Award, Wartenweiler Memorial Lecture, David Winter Young Investigator Award, Clinical Biomechanics Award, Promising Scientist Award and Carlo de Luca Emerging Scientist Award, among others.